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Know The Symptoms Of Diabetes, Its Prevention, And The Diet For Its Types

Sanya Singh

Written by Sanya Singh

Symptoms Of diabetes

Table of content

Diabetes is not all sugar-coated, it is about your lifestyle and how you are living and dealing with it. Well, there are sure, lots of people who one day want to say, ” I was Diabetic” but as a fact, diabetes is difficult to cure but yes, you can manage it well. However, the most important thing to point down is, that when you feel any type of changes in your body, you must take it seriously, because it could be the Symptoms Of Diabetes. Well, now if you have symptoms then you might be at risk because it is not just about only diabetes, it is actually about which type of diabetes you have.
People have this misconception that there are just 2 types of diabetes may be because they are the most common types, but one minute! There are 4 types of diabetes and every type has its own causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. So, to know more, continue reading and know how to control diabetes.

Let’s Know All About Diabetes And Celebrate 2023 Worlds Diabetes Day Together


What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is nowadays a very common disease, and the worst part of it is this is a chronic (long-lasting) health condition that affects how your body turns food into energy. So, what happens is that your body breaks down most of the food you eat into sugar or glucose, releasing it into your bloodstream. Further, when the blood sugar goes up, it indicates your pancreas releases insulin which acts as a key to let the blood sugar into your body’s cells for use as energy.

What Happens Further?

So, further, with diabetes, your body stops making enough insulin or can’t use it as well as it should be used. Now because of less production of insulin cells stop responding to insulin and of which excess blood sugar stays in your bloodstream. Moreover, with over time, it causes serious health problems, like heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.

Therefore, there is no such cure for diabetes, but yes, working towards your weight, eating healthy food, and being active can help with diabetes distress.

Types Of Diabetes

Diabetes is, however, a small word but in actuality, it is quite wide. There are 4 types of diabetes, that people can suffer from. These are discussed below along with symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Let us start reading one by one about each of them.

symptoms of diabetes and types

1. Type 1 Diabetes

What is Type 1 diabetes? So, it is the type that is caused when the body attacks itself by mistake, which is also, called an autoimmune reaction, and further, this reaction stops the body from making insulin. However, in people who have type 1 diabetes, the symptoms of the same are quickly developed. Moreover, this type is usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults.

symptoms of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes

Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes

Talking about the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes, then they can appear suddenly. So, these include,

  • Feeling more thirsty than usual
  • Urinating a lot
  • Bed-wetting in children who have never done that during the night
  • Feeling hungry
  • Losing weight without doing anything
  • Feeling irritable
  • Having mood swings
  • Feeling tired and weak
  • Having blurry vision

Risk Factors
Although the reason for this type of diabetes is unknown, yes there is a possibility, that your immune system which fights bacteria destroys insulin that produces cells in the pancreas. On the other side, other possible causes could be genetics or the disclosure of viruses and other environmental factors.
Other possibilities that can lead to type 1 diabetes:

  • Family history
  • Genetics
  • Geography
  • Age

Complications

Suffering from type 1 diabetes can affect some organs of your body also. Moreover, diabetes complications can threaten your life or even can even lead to disabilities.

Heart And Blood Vessel Disease:

Diabetes increases the risk of heart and blood vessel diseases like coronary artery disease with chest pain, heart attack, stroke, or high blood pressure.

Nerve Damage Neuropathy:

Too much sugar in the blood tends to injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels that actually feed the nerves, especially in the legs. This further, can cause tingling, numbness, burning, or pain. However, if blood sugar is not controlled properly but poorly it could cause you to lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs over time.

Kidney Damage (Nephropathy):

Diabetes can damage the system of kidneys which have millions of tiny blood vessels that keep waste from entering the blood. So, this damage can further lead to kidney failure or end-stage kidney disease and thus, needs to be treated with dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Eye Damage:

Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the retina which could further, cause blindness. Also, it increases the risk of other vision conditions like cataracts and glaucoma.

Foot Damage:

Poor blood flow in the feet can cause nerve damage in the feet and can increase the risk of some foot complications. However, infections like untreated cuts, blisters, etc. then are treated with toe, foot, or leg removal.

Skin And Mouth Conditions:

Diabetes can, moreover, lead to infections of the skin and mouth like bacterial and fungal infections, gum disease, and dry mouth also.

Pregnancy Complications:

High blood sugar levels can be dangerous during pregnancy for both the parent and the baby also. These complications could include the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth defects. While, for the parent, there is the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic eye problems, pregnancy-induced high blood pressure, and preeclampsia.

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Type 1 Diabetes

So, as a fact, every problem has a solution. Although you might not be able to cure some diseases permanently, yes, you can improve them and manage them increasingly.

↪ Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) Test

This test measures the amount of blood sugar that is attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells called hemoglobin. It, therefore, shows the average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months and the higher the blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin will be attached to sugar.

In some cases, like pregnancy, this test is not possible, so then you have to go for the below tests:

Random Blood Sugar Test

Under this test, at random times your blood sugar test will be taken confirming by additional tests.
Blood sugar values are expressed in mg/dl which is milligrams per deciliter or mmol/L or millimoles per liter.
Also, in this test, the time you ate last does not matter, a random blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes.

Fasting Blood Sugar Test
In this taste, a blood sample is taken after you don’t eat overnight.
However. To note down, a fasting blood sugar level is less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is healthy.
While a fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes.
And if it is 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.

After The Diagnosis

It does not end here, because regular check-ups will be continued to keep up the healthy sugar levels. So, during these visits, your A1C levels will be checked and your target A1C goal may vary depending on various factors like age.
If the treatment of diabetes is going well, you will have to continue with the same otherwise, if there is a high A1C level then you will need to change the insulin amount, meal plan, or both.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

Now, let us go through the treatment of this type of diabetes and gain some genuine knowledge.

  • Taking insulin
  • Counting carbohydrates, fats, and protein
  • Monitoring blood sugar often
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Exercising regularly and keeping a healthy weight

However, the goal is to keep the blood sugar level as close to normal to prevent complications, which means the blood sugar levels during the daytime before meals should be between 80 and 130 mg/dL. While after-meal numbers should be not higher than 180 mg/dL two hours after eating.

↪ Insulin And Other Medications
Anyone who has type 1 diabetes needs insulin therapy throughout their life.

There are many types of insulin, including:

Short-Acting Insulin
This is also, called regular insulin and starts working around 30 minutes after injection and reaches a peak effect at 90 to 120 minutes, and lasts about 4 to 6 hours. Eg. Humulin R

Rapid-Acting Insulin
This insulin work within 15 minutes, reaching peak effect at 60 minutes and lasts about 4 hours, and is often used 15 to 20 minutes before meals. Eg. glulisine (Apidra),
Intermediate-Acting Insulin
This is also called NPH insulin and starts working in about 1 to 3 hours. It reaches a peak effect at 6 to 8 hours lasting 12 to 24 hours. Eg. NPH (Novolin N, Humulin N).
Long- and ultra-long-acting insulin
This insulin provides coverage for as long as 14 to 40 hours. Eg. detemir (Levemir).

Insulin Delivery Options

So, as a fact, insulin can’t be taken by mouth to lower blood sugar so you’ll need to either get shots (injections) or use an insulin pump.

Injections
A fine needle and syringe or an insulin pen are used to inject insulin under the skin. On the other side, if you choose shots, then you need a mixture of insulin types to use during the day and night.

↪An Insulin Pump
An insulin pump is a small device that delivers specific amounts of insulin throughout the day and when you eat. In this, a tube connects a reservoir of insulin to a catheter that’s inserted under the skin of your abdomen. While a tubeless pump involves wearing a pod containing the insulin on your body combined with a tiny catheter that’s inserted under your skin.

Blood Sugar Monitoring
You may have to check and record your blood sugar level at least 4 times a day depending on the type of insulin therapy you select. Even if you take insulin regularly and also, eat on a strict schedule, they are chances that blood sugar levels can change. Therefore, blood sugar monitoring is important,

Continuous Glucose Monitoring
This is helpful for preventing low blood sugar and also, lower A1C. However, this is attached to the body using a fine needle just under the skin checking blood glucose levels every few minutes.

Closed Loop System

A closed-loop system is a device, which is implanted in the body, linking a continuous glucose monitor to an insulin pump. Further, it keeps a check on blood sugar levels every five minutes and this device automatically delivers the correct amount of insulin when the monitor shows that it’s needed. Note, The Food and Drug Administration has approved two artificial pancreases for people of age 14 and older with type 1 diabetes, which is this one.

Other Medications

The doctor might put you on medications if the sugar is not getting under control and these could be,
High Blood Pressure Medications: These are recommended for people with diabetes who have blood pressures above 140/90 millimeters of mercury.
Aspirin: You might be recommended to take regular aspirin daily to protect your heart.
Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs: This is for people with diabetes and who have a higher risk of heart disease.

Activities Of Concern

You should be very careful while doing the below activities,

Driving: Blood sugar can go down at any time, hence, it is important to do a check before you drive. So, if it’s below 70 mg/dL, then you should have a snack with 15 grams of carbohydrates then again in 15 minutes retest making sure it has risen to a safe level.

Working: A place where you work is another major factor. If your work involves driving or operating heavy machinery, then you should make sure that you have a provider to work with you, and also, you are taking regular breaks to test your blood sugar levels.

Being Pregnant: According to experts, your A1C readings should be less than 6.5% before you try to get pregnant. However, the risk of congenital diseases present at birth is higher for people with type 1 diabetes and should be properly taken care of during the first 6 to 8 weeks of pregnancy.

Being Older: People who are old, or weak have an increased risk of low blood sugar and for people with type 1 diabetes, a less strict A1C goal of less than 8% may be appropriate.

Potential Future Treatments

Hope you don’t reach this stage, but yes, below is the treatment for the pancreas.

Pancreas Transplant: After this treatment, you no longer need insulin but pancreas transplants aren’t always successful and pose serious risks. However, this treatment is generally for those whose diabetes gets difficult to manage or for people who also need a kidney transplant.
Islet Cell Transplantation: Although, for this, the research is on this treatment will provide new insulin-producing cells from a donor pancreas.

Signs Of Trouble

This is what you should worry about if you have type 1 diabetes.

Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia): This happens when a person with diabetes does not have much sugar in the blood. Its symptoms might include,

  • Looking pale (pallor)
  • Shakiness
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Sweating
  • Hunger or nausea
  • An irregular or fast heartbeat
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Feeling weak and having no energy (fatigue)
  • Irritability or anxiety
  • Headache
  • Tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, or cheek

However, if hypoglycemia is not treated well, then it might worsen the situation and can further, lead to,

  • Confusion, unusual behavior, or both, such as the inability to complete routine tasks
  • Loss of coordination
  • Difficulty speaking or slurred speech
  • Blurry or tunnel vision
  • Inability to eat or drink
  • Muscle weakness
  • Drowsiness

Severe hypoglycemia may cause:

  • Convulsions or seizures
  • Unconsciousness
  • Death, rarely

Hypoglycemia Unawareness: This is a situation when people stop sensing that their blood sugar level is getting low and the body, also, does not react to it.

⇒ High Blood Sugar(Hyperglycemia): This can be the reason for not eating the right type of food, eating too much, or not taking much insulin. In this case, you must watch for,

  • Frequent urination
  • Increased thirst
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Irritability

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: In this case, the body starts breaking down the fat when cells starve for energy, further, producing toxic acids known as ketones. This is, however, a life-threatening emergency and symptoms include,

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • A sweet, fruity smell on your breath
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dry mouth
  • Weakness
  • Confusion
  • Coma

Lifestyle And Home Remedies

👉🏻Commit yourself to manage your diabetes.

👉🏻Identify people around that you are diabetic.

👉🏻Schedule an eye exam and a yearly physical exam.

👉🏻Keep your vaccinations updated.

👉🏻Make sure to keep your cholesterol and blood sugar in control.

👉🏻If you drink alcohol, then drink it within a limit.

👉🏻Take any changes in your body seriously.

Type 1 Diabetes Diet Chart

So, here is a diet plan recommended by the best dietitians for diabetes. Follow to improve your blood sugar levels.

Meal 1: Fenugreek seeds water, 5 soaked almonds
Meal2: Besan cheela
Meal 3: Any fruit (except mango, chikoo, banana, and grapes)
Meal 4: Black channa curry with 1 bran roti
Meal 5: 1 cup of green tea
Meal 6: Rainbow salad
Meal 7: Ghiya curry with 1 0r 2 slices of bread toast
Meal 8: Ajwain cinnamon water

2. Type 2 Diabetes

Now the question is what is type 2 diabetes? So, type 2 diabetes is a situation when your pancreas stops producing enough insulin, and cells respond poorly to it and intake less sugar. This is also, known as adult-onset diabetes and can begin in childhood as well but is more common in older adults. However, this cannot be cured but yes, you can manage it by losing weight, eating well, and exercising. On the other hand, you might need diabetes medications or insulin therapy if it does not get managed well by diet.

symptoms of diabetes: Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

So, the signs and symptoms of this type often develop slowly, and also, sometimes you can be living with type 2 diabetes for years without knowing it. however, these include,

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Increased hunger
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Frequent infections
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck

Causes

Type 2 diabetes is actually the result of two interrelated problems which are,

  • Cells do not interact in a normal way with insulin and so don’t take in enough sugar. Therefore, the cells in the muscle, fat, and liver become resistant to insulin.
  • While the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to manage blood sugar levels.

Risk Factors

So, risk factors include,

  • Weight
  • Fat distribution
  • Inactivity
  • Family history
  • Race and ethnicity
  • Blood lipid levels
  • Age
  • Prediabetes
  • Pregnancy risks
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome

Complications

If symptoms of diabetes are not taken seriously, then you can go through the below complications if you are suffering from type 2 diabetes.

Heart And Blood Vessel Disease:

Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and narrowing of blood vessels.
Nerve Damage (neuropathy) In Limbs:

High blood sugar over time can, therefore, damage your nerves, further, resulting in tingling, numbness, burning, pain, or eventual loss of feeling.
Other Nerve Damage:

Damaged nerves of the heart can contribute to irregular heart rhythms and if the nerves are damaged in the digestive system then it can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation. Moreover, nerve damage in men may cause erectile dysfunction.
Kidney Disease:

Diabetes can lead to chronic kidney disease or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may further, require the treatment of dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Eye Damage:

Diabetes increases the risk of serious eye diseases, like cataracts, and glaucoma, and can also, damage the blood vessels of the retina, potentially leading to blindness.
Skin Conditions:

Diabetes may lead to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.
Slow Healing:

If the cuts and blisters are left untreated they can become serious infections, which may heal poorly and severe damage might require toe, foot, or leg amputation.
Hearing Impairment:

Diabetes can result in hearing problems.
Sleep Apnea:

People with diabetes usually suffer from obstructive sleep apnea and in this obesity may be the main contributing factor to both conditions.
Dementia:

Type 2 diabetes seems can therefore increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders that cause dementia.

Diagnosis And Treatment

Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed using the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test and indicates the average blood sugar level for the past two to three months of yours. So, the diabetes range can be judged as follows,

  • Normal – below 5.7%
  • Prediabetes – 5.7% to 6.4%
  • Diabetes – 6.5% or higher

In case, the A1C test isn’t available, or if you have certain conditions that you can not go for this test, then the doctor will recommend you following tests to diagnose diabetes,

Random Blood Sugar Test

When you eat last, does not matter, for this test, but a level of 200 mg/dL or higher suggests diabetes, especially if you have frequent urination and extreme thirst, and other signs and symptoms of diabetes.

Fasting Blood Sugar Test

For this test, a blood sample is taken after an overnight fast, and the results are interpreted as follows,

  • Normal – Less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L)
  • Prediabetes – 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L)
  • Diabetes – 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

This test is not as common as the others and is, especially used during pregnancy. For this, you’ll need to fast overnight and at the hospital, you will have to drink a sugary liquid. Blood levels are tested periodically for the next two hours and the results are interpreted as below,

  • Normal – Less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal.
  • Prediabetes – 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L)
  • Diabetes – 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher

Screening

This test is further, categorized into groups:

  • People who are younger than 35, overweight or obese, and have one or more risk factors associated with diabetes
  • Women who have had gestational diabetes
  • People who have been diagnosed with prediabetes
  • Children who have a family history of type 2 diabetes, are overweight or obese or have other risk factors.

After The Diagnosis

Once, you’re diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may do other tests to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes as the two conditions often require different treatments. The A1C test levels will be again done twice a year and when there are any changes in treatment. However, target A1C goals vary on different factors like your age and for most people, an A1C level should be below 7%.

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Tips for managing type 2 diabetes and keeping your blood sugar level closer to normal and preventing complications are as below,

  • Healthy eating
  • Regular exercise
  • Weight loss
  • Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy
  • Blood sugar monitoring

👉🏻 Healthy Eating
Healthy eating is always the first solution to every problem and so, is reducing symptoms of diabetes.

  • A regular schedule for meals and healthy snacks
  • Smaller portion sizes
  • More high-fiber foods, such as fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, and whole grains
  • Fewer refined grains, starchy vegetables, and sweets
  • Modest servings of low-fat dairy, low-fat meats, and fish
  • Healthy cooking oils, such as olive oil
  • Few calories
  • Monitor intake of carbohydrates
  • Nutritional meals

👉🏻 Physical Activities

  • Aerobics for weight loss and during diabetes is a good option. However, adults should at least do it for 30 minutes while children for 1 hour.
  • Also, you can perform resistant exercises like yoga, or everyday exercises that increase your strength, ability, and balance.
  • While working on computers or laptops, make sure to take short breaks and walk for a few minutes, to keep your blood sugar level in control.

👉🏻 Monitoring Blood Sugar

To maintain the sugar within the target range, your doctor will advise you on how often to check your blood sugar level. For eg., you will need to check it once a day and before or after exercise and if you are taking insulin, you may need to do this multiple times a day.
So, monitoring is usually done with a small device called a blood glucose meter, which measures the amount of sugar in a drop of your blood. Therefore, make sure, you keep a track of your measurements to share with your healthcare team.
However, continuous monitoring of glucose is an electronic system placed under your skin that records glucose levels every few minutes, and information is transmitted to a mobile device like a phone, and then it can send alerts when levels are too high or too low.

👉🏻 Diabetes Medications

If you are unable to maintain your blood sugar level with diet and exercise, then you might be recommended for diabetes medications as they will help lower insulin levels or insulin therapy.

  • Metformin is the first medication prescribed by doctors for type 2 diabetes which works primarily by lowering the production of glucose in the liver and improving the sensitivity of your body’s insulin so that your body uses insulin more effectively.
  • Sulfonylureas are another type of medicine that help your body secrete more insulin. Eg. glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase).
  • Glinides help stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin as they are faster acting than sulfonylureas, and the duration of their effect in the body is shorter. Eg. repaglinide and nateglinide.
  • DPP-4 inhibitors reduce blood sugar levels and tend to have a very modest effect. Eg. sitagliptin (Januvia).
  • GLP-1 receptor agonists are injectable medications that lower blood sugar levels and slow down digestion. Their use is often associated with weight loss, and some may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Eg. exenatide (Byetta, Bydureon).
  • SGLT2 inhibitors inhibit the return of glucose to the bloodstream affecting the blood-filtering functions in your kidneys and, further, glucose is excreted in the urine. These also, reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in people with a high risk of those conditions.
  • Other medications include blood pressure and cholesterol-lowering medications, as well as low-dose aspirin, which helps prevent heart and blood vessel disease.

👉🏻 Insulin Therapy

Some people who have type 2 diabetes need insulin therapy which further, with different types varying on how quickly they begin to work and how long they have an effect.
Talking about long-acting insulin works overnight or throughout the day to keep blood sugar levels stable. While short-acting insulin might be used at mealtime.
However, which insulin you need and when you need will be determined by your doctor. Also, keep in mind doctor can change your insulin type, dosage, and schedule depending on how stable your blood sugar levels are.

Insulin therapy

👉🏻 Weight-Loss Surgery

Weight loss surgery is an overall treatment plan which includes a proper diet and nutritional supplements guidelines, mental health care, and exercise. However, this will help you lose weight and manage type 2 diabetes and obesity.
This surgery is a convenient option for adults living with type 2 diabetes who have a body mass index (BMI) of 35 or higher also, depending on how severe the diabetes is or surgery may be an option for someone with a BMI lower than 35. Noting, this weight-loss surgery is a lifelong commitment to lifestyle changes. and long-term side effects like nutritional deficiencies and osteoporosis.

👉🏻 Pregnancy

Women who are pregnant and have type 2 diabetes, should, however, need to change their treatment plans and adhere to diets that control the intake of carbohydrates. In most cases, women will need insulin therapy and may need to discontinue other treatments, like blood pressure medications.
Therefore, it is important to visit an ophthalmologist during each trimester of your pregnancy as the conditions of diabetes during pregnancy might get serious.

Signs Of Trouble

When you notice symptoms of diabetes it is important to get yourself checked, and however, monitoring your blood sugar levels regularly is important to avoid severe complications like,

High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia):

Eating certain types of foods or too much food, being sick, or not taking your medicines at the right time can cause high blood sugar, and symptoms include,

  • Frequent urination
  • Increased thirst
  • Dry mouth
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue
  • Headache

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). This life-threatening condition includes a blood sugar reading higher than 600 mg/dL (33.3 mmol/L). HHNS may be more likely if you have an infection, are not taking medicines as prescribed, or take certain steroids or drugs that cause frequent urination. Signs and symptoms include:

  • Dry mouth
  • Extreme thirst
  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion
  • Dark urine
  • Seizures

Diabetic Ketoacidosis:

This occurs when a lack of insulin leads to the breakdown of fat for fuel rather than sugar further, resulting in a buildup of acids called ketones in the bloodstream. Triggers of diabetic ketoacidosis can be illnesses, pregnancy, trauma, and medications.
Although this case is not very severe in type 2 diabetes, the toxicity of the acids can be life-threatening. In addition to the symptoms of hypoglycemia, like frequent urination and increased thirst, it may result in,

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fruity-smelling breath

Low Blood Sugar:

If the blood sugar level drops below the target range, it’s called low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and this can drop for many reasons, like skipping a meal, unintentionally taking more medication than usual, or being more physically active than usual. Therefore, its signs include,

  • Sweating
  • Shakiness
  • Weakness
  • Hunger
  • Irritability
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Heart palpitations
  • Slurred speech
  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion

Diet Plan For Type 2 Diabetes

People who have type 2 diabetes can follow this 1-day meal plan, and for the rest can contact the dietitians of Fitelo and get the customized diet plan.

Meal 1: Methi water, 5 soaked almonds
Meal 2: Vegetable poha with 50% of vegetables
Meal 3: Kiwi/papaya/orange
Meal 4: Chana dal pulao
Meal 5: Green tea (add lemon juice to it)
Meal 6: Any fresh salad
Meal7: Chicken salad
Meal 8: Jeera coriander water

3. Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy which is also, called a period of gestation. This type of diabetes affects how your cells use glucose and causes high blood sugar that can also, affect your pregnancy and the health of your baby.
During pregnancy, you can, yes, control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising, and taking medication if necessary.
Point to be noted: If during pregnancy you have gestational diabetes then your blood sugar returns to its usual level soon after delivery.
But if you’ve had gestational diabetes, before pregnancy then you have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.

gestational diabetes

Symptoms Of Type 2 Diabetes

In most cases, the symptoms or signs are not noticeable signs or symptoms but yes, increased thirst and more-frequent urination are possible symptoms.

Causes
As a fact, the research is still on why some women get gestational diabetes and others don’t but excess weight before pregnancy thus plays a role. However, during pregnancy, the change in hormone levels makes it harder for the body to process blood sugar efficiently making the blood sugar rise.

Risk Factors
Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:

  • Being overweight or obese
  • Not being physically active
  • Having prediabetes
  • Having had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy
  • Having polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Having an immediate family member with diabetes

Complications That May Affect Your Baby
If you have gestational diabetes, your baby may suffer from the risk of,

Excessive Birth Weight:

If your blood sugar level is more than the standard range, it results in your baby growing too large, and very large babies weighing 9 pounds or more can become wedged in the birth canal, have birth injuries, or need a C-section birth.
Early (preterm) Birth:

High blood sugar may increase the risk of the due delivery due date or early labor.
Serious Breathing Difficulties:

Babies born early may experience respiratory distress syndrome — a condition that makes breathing difficult.
Low Blood Sugar (hypoglycemia):

Sometimes babies have hypoglycemia shortly after birth which may cause seizures. However, prompt feedings and an intravenous glucose solution can help return the baby’s blood sugar level to normal.
Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes Later In Life:

Babies can have a risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.
Stillbirth:

Gestational diabetes if left untreated can result in a baby’s death either before or shortly after birth.

Complications That May Affect You

Gestational diabetes may also increase your risk of,

High Blood Pressure And Preeclampsia:

This might increase the risk of high blood pressure and a serious complication of pregnancy that leads to high blood pressure and other symptoms that can threaten both your life and your baby’s life, also, called preeclampsia.

Having A Surgical Delivery (C-section):

There is a risk of having a C-section if you have gestational diabetes.
Future Diabetes:

There are chances that in the future you get gestational diabetes and, also, there is a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes as you get older.

Prevention

Know how to prevent it, trust us, it is not very difficult.

👉🏻Eat Healthy Foods: To prevent symptoms of diabetes, eat foods rich in fiber and low in fat and calories focusing more on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
👉🏻 Keep Active: Exercising before and during pregnancy will definitely protect you from developing gestational diabetes. So, aim for 30 minutes of moderate activity like doing a brisk. walk
👉🏻 Start Pregnancy At A Healthy Weight: For a healthy pregnancy try to lose extra weight beforehand and focus on healthy eating.
👉🏻 Don’t Gain More Weight Than Recommended: Yes, it is healthy to gain some weight during pregnancy but gaining too much too quickly can increase your risk of gestational diabetes.

Diagnosis Of Type 2 Diabetes

If the risk of gestational diabetes is average then, you’ll likely have a screening test during your second trimester, but if the risk is high of diabetes for eg. you’re overweight or obese before pregnancy; you have a family history or you had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy then you might get recommended for test for diabetes early in pregnancy.

Routine Screening For Gestational Diabetes:
Screening tests vary slightly depending on your health care provider, but it includes,

Initial Glucose Challenge Test:

Your doctor will ask you to drink a syrupy glucose solution and 1 hour later, you’ll have a blood test to measure your blood sugar level,

😒And if your blood sugar level is 190 mg/dL or 10.6 mmol/L, indicates gestational diabetes.

👌If the blood sugar level is below 140 mg/dL then it is within the standard range on a glucose challenge test.

😮But if your blood sugar level is higher than expected, you’ll have to go for another glucose tolerance test to determine if you have gestational diabetes.

Follow-Up Glucose Tolerance Testing:

This test is somehow similar to the initial test, the only difference is that the sweet solution will have even more sugar and your blood sugar will be checked every hour for three hours. As a result, if the 2 readings of the blood sugar are higher than expected, it means you have gestational diabetes.

Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

Treatment for gestational diabetes includes:

  • Lifestyle changes
  • Blood sugar monitoring
  • Medication, if necessary

👉🏻 Lifestyle Changes: A healthy lifestyle is key to wealthy living, so it is important to make certain changes in your daily routine.

👉🏻 Healthy Diet: A healthy diet here means eating fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and foods high in nutrition, and fiber, and low in fat and calories. On the other side limiting highly refined carbohydrates, including sweets will also, help you stay away from symptoms of diabetes.
👉🏻 Staying Active: Being physically active plays a key role in every wellness plan before, during, and after pregnancy. Exercising can, therefore, lower your blood sugar and can help relieve some common discomforts of pregnancy, including back pain, muscle cramps, swelling, constipation, and trouble sleeping.

Blood Sugar Monitoring

Your health care might ask you to check your blood sugar levels 4 times a day during pregnancy.

Medication

If you are unable to manage the right levels of blood sugar besides a good diet and exercise then you may need insulin injections to lower your blood sugar. So, depending on how serious your diabetes is, your healthcare provider will prescribe you the medicines accordingly, it could be oral which is as safe and as effective as injectable insulin to manage gestational diabetes.

Close Monitoring Of Your Baby

This is an important part of your treatment plan, and in this, your healthcare provider will check the growth and development of your baby with repeated ultrasounds or other tests. However, your guide may induce labor if you don’t go into labor by your due date. While if another is delivering after your due date may increase the risk of complications for your baby and you.

Gestational Diabetes Diet

What is gestational diabetes, has already been discussed. Now is the time to follow the right meal plan to improve this type of diabetes.

Meal 1: Elaichi water, 5 soaked almonds
Meal 2: Veg stuffed jaun roti with curd
Meal 3: Apple
Meal 4: Moong dal khichdi
Meal 5: Green tea (add some lemon juice to it)
Meal 6: Makhane, cucumber salad
Meal 7: Scrambled egg (2 egg whites)
Meal 8: Jeera coriander water

4. Prediabetes

Prediabetes is a situation when your blood sugar level is higher than normal. However, it is not as serious as type 2 diabetes, but yes, can severe if the lifestyle is unhealthy, leading to type 2 diabetes. Moreover, it is possible that if you have prediabetes, then damage to your heart, blood vessels, and kidneys might start getting affected but prediabetes to type 2 diabetes isn’t inevitable.

prediabetes

Prediabetes Symptoms

So, when it is prediabetes, then it doesn’t have any signs or symptoms but, one possible sign of it could be darkened skin on certain parts of the body like the neck, armpits, and groin.

This is important to note, as below are the signs that your prediabetes is converted to type 2 diabetes,

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Increased hunger
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
  • Frequent infections
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Unintended weight loss

Causes

So, here are some points that you should be aware of about prediabetes.

  • Although the exact cause of prediabetes is still unknown, yes, family history and genetics do play an important role.
  • Also, another important which is clear is that people with prediabetes don’t process sugar properly anymore.
  • Your body gets the glucose from the food you eat and when it is digested sugar then enters your bloodstream, further, the insulin allows the sugar to enter your cells. As a result, the sugar in your blood is reduced.
  • If you have prediabetes, then the process of secretion of insulin into the blood by the pancreas might not work well and as a result, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. This can also, be because the pancreas is not making enough insulin or the cells become resistant to insulin not allowing much sugar in.

Risk Factors

In every type of diabetes, there are certain risk factors and so, below are some factors that can increase the risk of prediabetes.

  • Weight: So, the more fatty tissue your cells become resistant to insulin. Hence, being obese or overweight is the risk factor for prediabetes.
  • Waist size: If you have a large waist size then it is an indication of insulin resistance. However, the risk of insulin resistance is more in men if their waist is larger than 40 inches and for women with waists larger than 35 inches.
  • Diet: The risk of prediabetes is more when you consume red meat, and processed meat, and drink sugar-sweetened beverages.
  • Gestational Diabetes: If you had gestational diabetes while pregnant, then there are chances you and your child might get prediabetes.
  • Age: The risk of diabetes increases after the age of 35, although it can develop at any age.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Women who have irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth, and obesity have a higher risk of prediabetes.

Diagnosis Of Prediabetes

According to The American Diabetes Association (ADA) diabetes screening for most adults begins at age 35 and so, diabetes screening before age 35 is recommended if you are overweight and have risk factors for prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.

Prediabetes Test

The below tests can be recommended to you by doctors,

Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) Test
This test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months and the results are as below,

  • Normal – Below 5.7%
  • Prediabetes – Between 5.7% and 6.4%
  • Diabetes – 6.5% or higher

Fasting Blood Sugar Test
This blood test is done after you haven’t eaten for at least eight hours or overnight and the results are interpreted as,

  • Normal – Less than 100 mg/dL
  • Prediabetes – 100 to 125 mg/dL
  • Diabetes – 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher


Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
This test is usually done during pregnancy and otherwise less commonly. For this, You have to fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid provided by your healthcare provider, and then the blood sugar levels are tested for the next two hours. The results are as follows,

  • Normal – Less than 140 mg/dL
  • Prediabetes – 140 to 199 mg/dL (7.8 to 11.0 mmol/L)
  • Diabetes – 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher

To be noted, your blood sugar levels will be tested once a year if you have prediabetes.

Children And Prediabetes Testing

Type 2 diabetes is now becoming more common in children and adolescents also, due to the rise in childhood obesity. However, as per ADA, this is because of the overweight and the below factors,

  • Family history of type 2 diabetes
  • Low birth weight
  • Being born to a mother who had gestational diabetes

So, children who have prediabetes for them the test for type 2 diabetes should happen annually or more often, especially if the child is experiencing a change in weight, or developing signs or symptoms of diabetes.

Treatment Of Prediabetes

If you want to bring your blood sugar level back to normal then maintaining a healthy lifestyle is a must and so, to prevent it from turning into type 2 diabetes it is important to follow the below points,

Eat Healthy Foods: Your diet should have fruits and vegetables rich in fiber, protein, and nutrients. Also, including nuts, whole grains, etc. will help you prevent symptoms of diabetes.

Lowe Risk Of Prediabetes: Eat foods low in fat, and calories and high in fiber to help you achieve your goal of lowering the risk of prediabetes.
Be more active: Physical activity is very important, as it helps you control your weight, uses up sugar for energy, further, helps the body use insulin more effectively.
Lose excess weight: Losing extra weight can significantly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and maintaining a healthy range of your weight helps reduce the risk of prediabetes and symptoms of diabetes.
Stop smoking: Quitting smoking improves the working of insulin and improves your blood sugar level.
Take medications: Taking prescribed medicines on time is very important as it helps to maintain sugar levels.
Children And Prediabetes Treatment

It is important for children with prediabetes to follow the below lifestyle changes to cure the symptoms of diabetes,

  • Losing weight
  • Eating fewer refined carbohydrates and fats, and more fiber
  • Reducing portion sizes
  • Spending at least one hour every day on any physical activity

To be noted, doctors do not recommend children with prediabetes unless lifestyle changes aren’t improving blood sugar levels. However, if medication is required, ‘metformin’ is usually the recommended drug.

Diet plan For Prediabetic Patients

Here is the meal plan, that you can follow if you are suffering from prediabetes.

Meal 1: Fenugreek seeds water, 5 soaked almonds
Meal 2: Moong dal cheela with mint chutney
Meal 3: Any fruit (except banana, grapes, mango and chikkoo
Meal 4: Moong dal oats roti
Meal 5: 1 cup of green tea
Meal 6: Makhana, cucumber salad
Meal 7: Sauteed vegetables with curd/raita
Meal 8: Chamomile tea

When Dietitian Mac Is Here, There Is No Fear🤩

This means, even if you have diabetes, Fitelo’s kitchen has amazing and delicious recipes for you. Check it out.

👉🏻Is Dosa Batter se banaye apni zindagi better😋

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👉🏻 Idea of eating brown bread is not yet dead, try now.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Which Exercise You Can Do To Prevent Symptoms Of Diabetes?

Ans: Doing any kind of workout will help you with it, but yoga for diabetes is a great option to choose.

Q. What Is Diabetes Insipidus?

Ans: Diabetes insipidus is a disorder, which results in the imbalance of fluids in the body.

Q. What Are The Types Of Diabetes?

Ans: There are 4 types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and prediabetes.

Q. What Is Diabetes Mellitus?

Ans: This is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

Q. How To Control Diabetes?

Ans: Making healthy changes in your everyday routine and taking medications on time is a solution to managing diabetes and staying away from symptoms of diabetes.

Q. What Is Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?

Ans: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition in which the placenta makes a hormone preventing the body from using insulin effectively.

Q. How To Check Diabetes At Home?

Ans: To check diabetes at home follow the below steps,

  • Insert a test strip into your meter and prick the side of your fingertip with the needle.
  • Now touching and holding the edge of the test strip allow a drop of blood on it and wait for the meter to display your blood sugar level on a screen.

Q. What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes?

Ans: Symptoms of diabetes can vary from type diabetes, but some common signs are,

  • Urinating often at night
  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Feeling very hungry
  • Having blurry vision
  • Feeling numb or tingling hands or feet
  • Feeling very tired
  • Having very dry skin or spots
  • Having sores that heal slowly
  • Having more infections than usual

Q. What If You Don’t Get To Know About The Symptoms Of Diabetes?

Ans: Although there are times, you do not get to know about the symptoms of diabetes, you have to take a lot of care if you realize any kind of changes in your body, as this can increase the risk of heart disease also.

Q. Can Early Symptoms Of Diabetes Be Cured?

Ans: Type 1 diabetes does not go away on its own, but type 2 diabetes can go away if you modify your diet to a healthy one, maintain a healthy weight, and make healthy lifestyle choices.

Q. If In Summers You Are Feeling Thirsty, Is It One Of The Symptoms Of Diabetes?

Ans: In summer, you often feel thirsty because it’s too hot, but if you notice that you are feeling thirsty repeatedly, then you must get yourself checked up.

Q. Can You Eat Sweet Foods During Symptoms Of Diabetes?

Ans: Well, during symptoms of diabetes, you can eat sweets that are sugar-free and are not harmful to your health. You can, however, try Fitelo’s recipes like banana flour cake.

Q. What Is Diabetes In Hindi?

Ans: जब पर्याप्त इंसुलिन नहीं होता है या कोशिकाएं इंसुलिन का जवाब देना बंद कर देती हैं, तो आपके रक्तप्रवाह में बहुत अधिक रक्त शर्करा रहता है। समय के साथ, यह हृदय रोग, दृष्टि हानि और गुर्दे की बीमारी जैसी गंभीर स्वास्थ्य समस्याएं पैदा कर सकता है।

Word From Fitelo

So symptoms of diabetes as discussed differ with types of diabetes. There are 4 types of diabetes and all have different causes, risk factors, diagnoses, and treatments. However, what is important is to consult a doctor as soon as you notice changes in your body as it can get serious with time. Although diabetes can not be cured yes, you can manage it well with tips and a proper diet as mentioned above. Moreover, to get a customized diet plan, you can contact the expert dietitians of Fitelo, and take a step towards a healthy life.

Fun Fact

The confusion now of what to cook for breakfast, lunch, and dinner comes to an end. Because here is Fitelo, presenting you 20 healthy recipes, which are not just healthy but delicious also. Yes, you heard it right. These recipes are actually mouth-watering and super easy to cook and won’t take much time also. So, check it out now!

Contact Us Today

Your search to find the right guidance to be a part of all those fat-to-fit stories ends here. So, contact us today if you are looking for a diet plan with cheat meals. Also, we will discuss how we can help you achieve your weight loss goals.

Disclaimer

This blog post was written to help you to make healthy and better food choices altogether. So, be aware and take care. The important thing to consider is your health before starting a restrictive diet. Always seek advice from a doctor/dietitian before starting if you have any concerns.

Eat Healthy, Live Healthy. Enjoy a long happy life.

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